Articles | Volume 8, issue 4
Case report
02 Aug 2023
Case report |  | 02 Aug 2023

A natural history of untreated chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia over 20 years, with evolving squamous cell carcinoma: a case report

Asanka Wijendra, Alex Ramsden, and Martin McNally

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Related subject area

Subject: Osteomyelitis | Topic: Other
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Cited articles

Alami, M.: Squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis, Acta Orthop. Traumatol. Turc., 45, 144–148,, 2011. 
Barker, J. C., Khansa, I., and Gordillo, G. M.: A Formidable Foe Is Sabotaging Your Results: What You Should Know about Biofilms and Wound Healing, Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 139, 1184e–1194e,, 2017. 
Chan, J. K. K., Ferguson, J. Y., Scarborough, M., McNally, M. A., and Ramsden, A. J.: Management of Post-Traumatic Osteomyelitis in the Lower Limb: Current State of the Art, Indian J. Plast. Surg., 52, 62–72,, 2019. 
Corrigan, R. A., Barlow, G., Hartley, C., and McNally, M.: Squamous cell carcinoma complicating chronic osteomyelitis: A systematic review and case series, The Surgeon, 20, e322–e337,, 2022. 
Fritz, J. M. and McDonald, J. R.: Osteomyelitis: Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment, Phys. Sportsmed., 36, 50–54,, 2008. 
Short summary

Cancerous transformation is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of chronic bone infection. As with all forms of cancer, early detection and diagnosis is crucial to outcome.

Whilst there have been over 100 cases of chronic bone infection with cancerous transformation reported in the literature between 1999 and 2020, this is the first case report to document transformation with 20 years of concordant imaging and clinical review.