Articles | Volume 7, issue 3
Original full-length article
17 May 2022
Original full-length article |  | 17 May 2022

Simulated large joint fluid model for evaluating intra-articular antibiotic delivery systems: initial evaluation using antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads

Edward J. McPherson, Jessica A. Jennings, Omar Yunis, Michael A. Harris, Matthew V. Dipane, Nora L. Curtin, Madhav Chowdhry, Andrew J. Wassef, Joel D. Bumgardner, and Scott P. Noel

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Fabrication of antibiotic-loaded dissolvable calcium sulfate beads: an in vitro mixing lab utilizing various antibiotic mixing formulas
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm killing beyond the spacer by antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads: an in vitro study
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Cited articles

Abosala, A. and Ali, M.: The Use of Calcium Sulphate beads in Periprosthetic Joint Infection, a systematic review, J. Bone Joint Infect., 5, 43–49,, 2020. 
Aiken, S. S., Cooper, J. J., Florance, H., Robinson, M. T., and Michell, S.: Local Release of Antibiotics for Surgical Site Infection Management Using High-Purity Calcium Sulfate: An In Vitro Elution Study, Surg. Infect. (Larchmt.), 16, 54–61,, 2015. 
Andreacchio, A., Alberghina, F., Paonessa, M., Cravino, M., De Rosa, V., and Canavese, F.: Tobramycin-impregnated calcium sulfate pellets for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in children and adolescents, J. Pediatr. Orthop. B., 28, 189–195​​​​​​​,, 2019. 
Bortel, E. L., Charbonnier, B., and Heuberger, R.: Development of a Synthetic Synovial Fluid for Tribological Testing, Lubricants, 3, 664–686​​​​​​​,, 2015. 
Bowyer, G. W. and Cumberland, N.: Antibiotic release from impregnated pellets and beads, J. Trauma, 36, 31–35,, 1994. 
Short summary
A simulated large joint model has been established to help better understand the elution mechanics of antimicrobial agents and the devices used to deliver them to a large human joint. This model is unique to previously published models in that it more accurately represents the environment of a large human joint. The model was employed to evaluate four brands of commercial medical-grade calcium sulfate. These products were evaluated in both an unaltered state and when mixed with antibiotics.