Articles | Volume 6, issue 8
J. Bone Joint Infect., 6, 367–378, 2021
J. Bone Joint Infect., 6, 367–378, 2021

Review 07 Oct 2021

Review | 07 Oct 2021

Diagnosis of orthopaedic-implant-associated infections caused by slow-growing Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria – a clinical perspective

Diana Salomi Ponraj et al.

Cited articles

Achermann, Y., Sahin, F., Schwyzer, H. K., Kolling, C., Wust, J., and Vogt, M.: Characteristics and outcome of 16 periprosthetic shoulder joint infections, Infection, 41, 613–620,, 2013. 
Achermann, Y., Goldstein, E. J., Coenye, T., and Shirtliff, M. E.: Propionibacterium acnes: from commensal to opportunistic biofilm-associated implant pathogen, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 27, 419–440,, 2014. 
Achermann, Y., Liu, J., Zbinden, R., Zingg, P. O., Anagnostopoulos, A., Barnard, E., Sutter, R., Li, H., McDowell, A., and Zinkernagel, A. S.: Propionibacterium avidum: A Virulent Pathogen Causing Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infection, Clin. Infect. Diseas., 66, 54–63,, 2017. 
Akgun, D., Muller, M., Perka, C., and Winkler, T.: The serum level of C-reactive protein alone cannot be used for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections, especially in those caused by organisms of low virulence, Bone Joint J., 100-B, 1482–1486,, 2018. 
Akgun, D., Maziak, N., Plachel, F., Minkus, M., Scheibel, M., Perka, C., and Moroder, P.: Diagnostic Arthroscopy for Detection of Periprosthetic Infection in Painful Shoulder Arthroplasty, Arthroscopy, 35, 2571–2577,, 2019. 
Short summary
Implant-associated infections (IAIs) in orthopaedic surgery are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Slow-growing anaerobic bacteria are increasingly being recognized as potential causative agents in such infections, but their diagnosis is difficult. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of IAIs with these bacteria. In particular, the review gives an overview of the current methodology in the diagnosis of such infections, to serve as a guide for clinicians.